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NOTE: the text corresponds to Korshunov & Gorbunov, 1995) only.

FAMILIA PIERIDAE Duponchel, [1835]

    The butterflies of intermediate size. The wing ground colour 
is usually white, yellow or orange, with black or greenish 
markings. The head rounded. All the legs are equally developed 
and used for walking. 
    Eggs: elongate, ribbed longitudinally, 0.7-1.5 mm in length. 
The larvae are mostly green, often with markings and stripes, 
covered by sparse short and fine hairs, feed predominantly on 
Brassicaceae and Fabaceae. The pupae have the head pointed; they 
are attached head upwards or horizontally by tail hooks and a 
cincture, or a belt of silk threads around the middle. This 
family embraces all main pests among butterflies.
   The world fauna includes about 1000 species, in Asian Russia 
40 species are known. 


GENUS LEPTIDEA Billberg, 1820.
Type species: Papilio sinapis Linnaeus, 1758.

   F.w.l.: 18-27 mm. The wings are elongate, white; the body is 
long and very thin. As a rule two broods develop, the imagines of 
the summer brood being larger and with less expressed suffusion. 
The flight of imagines is weak and slow.
  Eggs: spindle-shaped with twelve ribs, at first white, later of 
a cream colour, laid singly on the young stems and leaves of 
foodplants. The larvae of our species are very similar, they are 
thin, green, with a darker back line and a yellow line on either 
side at the spiracles. The pupae are sharply pointed on either 
end and bear a conspicuous projection on the thorax, which make 
them triangle-shaped; yellow or green, with more or less 
expressed two-coloured, yellowish and reddish-brown lateral 
streaks. They are attached with a cincture head upwards or 
  A Palearctic genus with five species. 

71.  Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: Morocco, Europe, Anterior and Central Asia, Kazakhstan, 
the southern halves of Ural and Siberia  to Priangarye, in West 
and Middle Siberia northwards to the Middle Priobye. 

HABITAT: forest edges, glades, openings, brook valleys, meadows, 
in the mountains (Altai) rises up to 1500 m altitude;  on the 
most part of the range flies together with L. morsei in the same 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in two broods, almost permanently from late April 
to late August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Lathyrus, Vicia, Trifolium, 
Medicago, Astragalus, Lotus, Coronilla, and other herbaceous 
Fabaceae. Larva: green with a dark back line and yellow 
spiracular lines. Pupa ochre-yellow or green, with a reddish 
streak on either side. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 18-23 mm. The fore wing apex is 
rounded; the hind wing underside is yellowish, the greyish 
pattern in the spring brood imagines (f. lathyri Hubner, 1823) 
is distinct but the lengthwise strokes between the veins are 
absent, in the imagines of the summer brood (f. deniensis 
Boisduval, 1840) it consists of two vague stripes or is absent 
entirely. Similar species: L. morsei. 

72.  Leptidea morsei (Fenton in Butler, 1881).

TYPE LOCALITY: Japan: Hokkaido.

RANGE: The temperate Eurasia westwards to the Balkans and the 
lowland Austria, northwards in Siberia to the northern border of 
the middle taiga zone; the Sakhalin, Japan. 

HABITAT: forest edges, glades, open woodland, brook banks, 
meadows; in the mountains rises up to 1800 m above sea level (N. 
Altai). The imagines were observed to feed on the flowers of 
Pulmonaria, Geranium, Iris, various Fabaceae.

FLIGHT PERIOD: early May/June and July/August, in two broods. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Vicia cracca, V. amoena, 
Lathyrus, other herbaceous Fabaceae. Eggs: according to Lorcovic 
(1947) differ from those of L. sinapis by somewhat greater size. 
Larva: as compared with that of L. sinapis, has a lighter 
colouration, a wider back line and more conspicuous yellowish 
spiracular lines. Pupa: green with yellowish or reddish line on 
either side, it differs from that of L. sinapis by a longer head 
prominence and a straight profile of the dorsal side. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 19-25 mm.; as different from L. 
sinapis, the fore wing is slightly pointed apically. The hind 
wing underside is white with a distinct greyish pattern. In the 
spring brood butterflies (f. croatica) on hind wing underside at 
outer margin there are distinct dark intervein lengthwise 
strokes; in the summer brood the pattern consists of 
two distinct greyish stripes going across the veins, one of 
which, as different from L. amurensis, crosses the cell between 
the veins M1 and M2. Similar species: L. amurensis, L. sinapis. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: Ural and, most probably, eastwards 
throughout the continent there ranges the  subspecies major 
Grund, 1905 (?= morseides Verity, 1911), described from 
Yugoslavia.  has been described. 

73.  Leptidea amurensis (Menetries, 1859).


    South Siberia east of Verkhnee Priobye [the upper Ob' 
basin], Central Yakutia, NE Kazakhstan, Mongolia, NE CHina, 
Priamurye, Primorye, Japan. 

HABITAT: meadows and bushes in river valleys, dry meadows, open 
woodland, birch forest-steppe. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in two broods: May/Middle June and  July/late 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Vicia is known. The preimaginal 
stages resemble those of L. morsei. Pupa: that of summer 
generation light green, hibernating pupa of the spring brood - 
pale brown (Fukuda et al. 1982). 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 21-27 mm. The fore wing apex is 
more acutely pointed than in L. morsei and is somewhat stretched 
out. In the spring brood the hind wing underside is pale ochre-
coloured with a greyish pattern and the lengthwise white beam 
going throughout the wing, not being interrupted with a greyish 
spot, in the summer brood the underside is entirely white or has 
two obscure greyish transversal bands, which, as different from 
a similar species L. morsei, do not enter the space between the 
veins M1 and M2. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The taxa  emisinapis Verity, 1911 
(Pribaikalye) and vibiloides Verity, 1911 (Priamurye) are close 
to the nominotypical subspecies. Ssp. vernalis Graeser, 1892, 
was described from the Sakhalin. The subspecies jacutia P. 
Gorbunov et Korshunov, 1995 was described from Yakutia. 
   Original description:
   "Butterflies from Central Yakutia differ by a noticeable 
yellowish tint on the wing upperside and more intensive, than in 
other subspecies, ochre suffusion on the underside of the hind 
wing and on the most part, at the apex and the fore margin, of 
the fore wing. By these characters we state a subspecies 
Leptidea amurensis jacutia P. Gorbunov et Korshunov, sbsp.n. 
   MATERIALS: Holotype: a male - 2.06.1985, Yakutsk, the 
botanical garden (V. Dubatolov). Paratypes: a male - 21.06.1962, 
the same locality; 2 males - 28.05.1985, the same locality; a 
male - 2.06.1985 - the same locality."


TRIBUS PIERINI Duponchel, [1835]

GENUS APORIA Hubner, [1819].
Type species: Papilio crataegi Linnaeus, 1758.

  F.w.l.: 28-33 mm. The wings are white or yellowish, in our 
species without black spots but with conspicuous black veins. 
  A Palearctic genus with 12 species.

74.  Aporia crataegi (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: The non-tropical Eurasia, except for deserts and arctic 

HABITAT: forest meadows, other woody and open 
landscapes, bogs, gardens. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/middle July. In Siberia and the Far 
east this species repeatedly (every 4-5 years) exhibits mass 
proliferation, and almost every year this is the most abundant 
butterfly in the forest-steppe zone, in E Europe the last mass 
proliferation was observed in 30ths. The imagines migrate 
actively, some specimens penetrating into montane and lowland 
tundras. Copulation as a rule occurs immediately after the 
imagines have hatched from the pupae, with the wings yet not 
spread. According to our observations, active contacts between 
the mature males and females, which superficially resemble 
mating, are not in fact copulations, but rather an abortive form 
of mating behaviour. These butterflies as a rule congregate in 
plenties on wet ground at pools, brooks, lakes etc., males 
predonimating in these congregations. The imagines feed on 
various flowers the pollen of which often colours their hind 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: The main foodplants: mostly Padus avium, and 
also Sorbus aucuparia, S. sibirica, Spiraea media - in forest 
and forest-steppe zone of Ural and West Siberia (our 
observations); Padus avium, Prunus spinosa, Amigdalus nana, 
Rosa, Malus - in the steppen zone of Preduralye (Kuznetsov, 
Martynova, 1954); Vaccinium uliginosum in Yakutia, Zabaikalye, 
and Priamurye (Kurenzov, 1970; Sviridov, 1981a); Armeniaca 
Sibirica - in SE Transbaikalia (V. Dubatolov); Crataegus 
maximowiczii, C. pinnatifida, Malus manshuricus in Primorye 
(Kuranzov, 1970). The various species of the genera Spiraea, 
Crataegus, Cotoneaster, Malus, Pyrus, Cerasus, Amygdalus, 
Filipendula, and also Quercus and Juglans are reported as the 
foodplants from other parts of the range. Eggs: ribbed, yellow-
orange, in batches by 20-200 most frequently on the leaf 
underside of foodplants. The young larvae are gregarious, in 
August they construct a nest by spinning several leaves or twigs 
with silk, in which they overwinter. After hibernation they at 
first live on the nests and feed on buds, later they keep 
together in groups by several individuals and eat leaves and 
inflorescences, but after the last moult live solitarily. Mature 
larva: brown or dark-ash-grey with blueish-grey ventral side, on 
either side with two wide reddish-brown lengthwise stripes split 
into fragments by segment divisions; covered by long light 
hairs. Pupae: yellowish with black markings, on trunks and 
branches, often by numerous groups. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 23-36 mm. The wings are milky-
white with black veins, in females often with transparent areas; 
yellow scales are absent from the hind wings. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: weakly expressed in N Asia. The taxa 
meinhardi Krulikowsky, 1903 (W SIberia), sajana Verity, 1911 (E 
Sayan), banghaasi Bryk, 1921 (Priamurye), ussurica Kardakov, 
1928 (Primorye), and sachalinensis Matsumura, 
1925 (Sakhalin) most probably should be attributed to the 
nominotypical subspecies. A Japanese subspecies adherbal 
Fruhstorfer, 1910 was reported for the South Kuriles. 

75.  Aporia hippia (Bremer, 1861).

TYPE LOCALITY: Priamurye: the basins of Zeya,  Bureya,  and  
Ussuri Rivers. 

RANGE: Zabaikalye, Priamurye, Primorye, E Mongolia, NE China, 
Korea, Japan. 

HABITAT: deciduous and mixed forests, gardens, mostly in river 

FLIGHT PERIOD: late June/middle August.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Berberis amurensis is known 
(Kurenzov, 1970). The preimaginal phases were studied in Japan 
(Fukuda et al., 1982). Eggs: elongate, yellow with lenghtwise 
lines, laid in batches by 50-200 on leaf underside of the 
foodplant. The larvae live gregariously on loose silken nests, 
hibernate at the third or fourth instar. Mature larva: dark-
brown with lengthwise darker lines and spots on the back and 
sides, set with long light hairs; the head is black. Pupa: 
cream-white or yellow with numerous black markings on the thorax 
and abdomen, with black lines margining the antennal cases and 
joints of thoracic segments. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 27-37 mm. The wing underside 
ground colour is yellowish, with a bright yellow spot at the 
base; the veins are accompanied with broad dark suffusion. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: is weakly expressed. The taxon 
occidentalis O. Bang-Haas, 1927, was described for the 
Malakhanskii mountain range in W Transbaikalia, which is very 
close to ssp. hippia, known from Primorye and Priamurye.

GENUS PIERIS Schrank, 1801.
Type species: Papilio brassicae Linnaeus, 1758.

  F.w.l.: 17-34 mm. The wing upperside is white, less frequently 
yellowish; the discoidal spot on the fore wing is absent, the 
veins are not conspicuous; the sexual dimorphism is expressed 
through appearing or enlarging the black spots in the 
postdiscoidal area in females. The larvae are generally green, 
they live on Brassicaceae. The pupae are light-coloured with 
black markings; with the head pointed and with angular 
projections on the dorsal side: one on the thorax and two on the 
first abdominal segment; those of the autumn/spring brood 
  The genus includes about 30 species, mostly inhabiting the arid 
mountains of the subtropical Asia.

77.  Pieris brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: Europe, N. Africa, Anterior and Central Asia. Kazakhstan, 
China, North, Central and South Ural, the south of Siberia 
westwards to Pribaikalye. The species is actively expanding. In 
W. Siberia P. brassicae became abundant only in the latest 
couple of decades.  Recently it has established in S.Primorye 
and since the autumn 1993 is abundant there. Recently was found 
out also at Khabarovsk. In 70s years the species invaded Chile 
where became a pest. 
HABITAT: meadows, fields, waste lands, settlements; in the mountains 
goes as high as 1700 m above sea level (N.Altai); a serious pest. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: May/September in 2-3 broods. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae, predominantly 
cultivated: Brassica, Raphanus, Sinapis, Lepidium, Rorippa, 
etc., and also Reseda lutea (Resedaceae). Eggs: conical with 14 
ribs, yellow, in clusters by 20-100 on the foodplant. The young 
larvae are gregarious, eat the mesophyl of the young leaves from 
their underside, not perforating the upperside epidermis. Mature 
larva: blueish-green with yellowish ventral side and yellow back 
stripe, sprinkled with black spots of different sizes and set 
with short light hairs; the ventral side is yellowish; lives 
solitarily. Pupa: yellowish-green or white with small black and 
orange dots and spots, attached to tree trunks, fences, and 
other rather high places; hibernates. The Pupae from Primorye 
differ by those from Europe and Siberia by presence of thorn-
like projections on the sides (V. Dubatolov, pers. comm.) 

PECUILAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 25-34 mm. Fore wing has a black 
area at the apex, extended along the fore and outer margins, 
females have also two round black spot in the postdiscoidal 
area. The hind wing underside is yellowish with a light even 
suffusion of black scales. 


78. Pieris rapae (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: Eurasia, N. Africa, N. America,  Australia.  In  Ural  
and West Siberia reaches the polar regions but is not found in 
the north of East Siberia and the Far East. 

HABITAT: steppes, meadows, fields, wasting lands, settlements, 
roads and clearings in woods. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in the southern areas from May to September in 2-
3 broods, in the North in a single brood in early summer. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae: Alliaria, Arabis, 
Barbarea, Brassica, Cardamine, Descurainia, Erysimum, Hesperis, 
Raphanus, Turritis; and also Reseda lutea (Resedaceae). Eggs: 
pear-shaped, with 12 ribs, yellowish-orange, usually laid singly 
on leaf underside. Larva: velvety, with fine pubescence, mate-
green with a yellowish back line and two stripes or rows of 
spots of the same colour along either side; the head is 
brownish-green, the ventral side is yellowish-green. It develops 
rapidly, pupates after the fourth moult, usually on leaf 
undersurface. Pupa: yellowish- or greyish-green or pale brown, 
depending on the substrate colour, with yellowish streaks and 
black spots on the wing cases, back, and sides of abdominal 
segments, it has prominences on the head and thorax. Its stage 
lasts for 7-10 days, or the pupa hibernates. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 20-30 mm. Dark apical spot on 
fore wing is slightly extended along the costal margin and does 
not reach the middle of the outer edge; the hind wing underside 
is evenly pale-yellow or whitish. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: is little studied. The butterflies from 
Ural and the majority of Siberia are in general close to the 
subspecies rapae (? = viluensis Rober, 1907, described from the 
Vilyui River). The specimens from Transbaikalia and more eastern 
regions are characterized by a widened dark pattern on the fore 
wing upperside in females, a suffusion by dark scales in the 
interhal half of this wing being well expressed, they were 
reported under the names: kenteana [Staudinger] in  Rober, 1907 
(Kentei), orientalis Oberthur, 1880 (Primorye), metra 
Stephens, 1827 (the Sakhalin), crucivora Boisduval, 1836 (the 
Sakhalin and Kuriles) but all they are insufficiently 
studied, the differences being very weak. Numerous individual 
variations are known for this species.                          

79.  Pieris canidia (Sparrman, 1768).


RANGE: The southern half of Asia, including Central Asia, NE. China, 
Korea, Japan; recently was discovered by E.A. Belyaev in South 
Primorye at the village Ryazanovka. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in N.Korea in the second half of July. 
PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae. Larva resembles 
that of P. rapae. The pupa has a sharp projection on either 
side of the first abdominal segment. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 24-28 mm. The apical spot 
strongly extends along the fore and, especially, outer margin of 
the fore wing upperside; on the fore wing upperside there is one 
round black spot in male and two ones in female; the hind wing 
underside ground colour is white. 

79.  superspecies napi

    F.w.l. of the the first (spring) brood imagines usually 18-24 
mm; the apical dark spot on the fore wing is narrow, stretched 
along the costal margin, frequently replaced by a dark suffusion 
of the vein endings; the hind wing underside with a heavy dark 
suffusion along the veins. F.w.l. of the the second (summer) 
brood imagines is up to 31 mm; the hind wing underside has traces 
of a dark suffusion along the veins or is clear white.
    The systematic situation within the group is very 
complicated due to a high level of individual variation. In the 
work by Eitschberger (1983) a new attempt has been made to split 
Pieris napi L. s.l. into a number of separate species, seven of 
which being reported for the territory considered.  However, 
special study, especially with regard of the preimaginal stages, 
are missing in those regions, so the conclusions still remain to 
be the matter of future. 

80. Pieris (napi) napi (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: Europe, Anterior and Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Ural, West 
Siberia, the mountains of South Siberia east to ?Pribaikalye. 

HABITAT:  meadows  of various kinds, fields, settlements.  

FLIGHT PERIOD: usually in two broods in May/June and July/August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: various Brassicaceae (Alliaria, 
Arabis, Armoracia, Barbarea, Brassica, Cardamine, Descurainia, 
Draba, Erysimum, Lepidium, Raphanus, Sisymbrium, Thlaspi etc.) 
and also Reseda lutea (Resedaceae). Eggs: bottle-shaped, with 14 
ribs, yellowish, laid singly on the leaves or stems of the 
foodplant. Larva: velvet-green with yellow interrupted streak on 
either side, sprinkled with black dots and pale warts; its 
development lasts for 2-3 weeks. Pupa: green with black dots, 
more slender and angular than in P. rapae. F.w.l.: 19-26 mm. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 17-26 mm. As compared with P. 
(napi) bryoniae, the basal darkening on the wings is weaker, the 
hind wing underside ground colour is of a noticeable yellowish 
tint, in females the wing upperside has no yellowish tint and 
a weaker vein suffusion. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The nominotypical subspecies napi inhabits  
Ural and West Siberia. In the mountains of South Siberia from 
the West Tannu-Ola mountain range to the Selenga River basin in 
Buryatia a subspecies euorientis Verity, 1908 ranges. It has 
been described from the East Sayans and is considered by U. 
Eitschberger (1983) as an independent species. 

81. Pieris (napi) bryoniae (Hubner, 1791).

TYPE LOCALITY: Switzerland: "Gebirge bei Gent".

RANGE: Distributed mostly in the mountain regions of the northern 
half of Eurasia, Reported for the mountains of South, Central, 
and East Siberia (Eitschberger, 1983). The range is to be 

FLIGHT PERIOD: June/July in a single brood.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Lapland (Eitschberger, Strohle, 
1990) Eggs are green spindle-shaped, with 17 ribs. A young larva 
is light-green, covered with white hairs. Mature larva is dark-
green, with a whitish-green ventral side, covered with tiny 
black dots. The spiracles are brown with wide yellow rims. Pupa: 
green, with yellow keel-like projections, or ochre-coloured with 
black spots of small or varying size.

PECILUAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 18-25 mm. As compared with P. 
(napi) napi, the dark basal suffusion is more expressed, in 
females the wing upperside usually has a strong yellowish tint, the 
dark suffusion along the veins being heavier.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The subspecies bryonides Scheljuzhko, 
1910 ranges in the mountains of South Siberia; the subspecies 
vitimensis Verity, 1911 is described from West and Central 
Yakutia; schintimeisteri Eitschberger, 1983 - from the Aldan 
upland and Verkhoyanskiy mountain range; sheljuzhkoi 
Eitschberger, 1983 - from the Magadan Region (the Kolyma basin 
and city Magadan); peculiar butterflies from Kamchatka was 
described as ssp. kamtschadalis Rober, 1907. Probably it is P. 
bryoniae to which a little-known taxon sichotensis Kurenzov, 
1941 from the Sikhote-Alin' Mts. should be attributed.

SYSTEMATIC NOTES: By external and biological features this 
species much resembles P.(napi) napi. In Central Europe 
differences were found out between these taxa, on the molecular 
level (isozyme variation) (Gieger, 1978). However, during 
populational studies in the Alps other authors (Benninger et 
al., 1993) revealed fertility of the hybrids, that indicated 
rather at a subspecies rank. In SIberia such studies are 

82. Pieris (napi) dulcinea (Butler, 1882).


RANGE: Priamurye, Primorye, the Sakhalin, the South 
Kuriles, NE. China, Korea. There are also reports on its 
occurrence further westwards to the Kodar mountain range in NE. 
Zabaikalye (a male in the ISEA collectikon collected by Savin, 
expedition headed by Starikovskii, on 7.08.1986) and 
northwards to the Suntar-Khayata mountain range in S.Yakutia. 

HABITAT: meadow patches, wood edges, bush thickets, fields, 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in two broods in middle April/middle May and 
middle June/late August.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Arabis hirsuta was reported 
for Primorye (Kurenzov, 1970). 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO As different from P. melete, on the 
fore wing upperside the cell has no dark suffusion. Spring brood 
imago: F.w.l. 19-25 mm; the dark postdiscoidal spots on the fore 
wing underside are of close size (in females) or absent (in 
males); the hind wing underside has no yellowish tint and a 
yellowish spot at the wing base usually is not seen. The summer 
brood imago: F.w.l.: 24-30 mm; on the fore wing upperside the 
apical dark spot is triangular or only vein endings are dark 
suffused, in the postdiscoidal area there is usually one spot in 
males and two ones in females; the hind wing underside is 
white. By many features this taxon is close to P. (napi) napi. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The subspecies dulcinea is distributed 
in the continental part of the range. The subspecies saghalensis 
Nakahara, 1926 was described from the Sakhalin, which differ by 
on average smaller size of the butterflies of the summer brood 
and reduction of thedark patter on the fore wing upperside. 
Besides, a taxon tomariana Matsumura, 1928, described from the 
Kunashir Island and considered as a distinct species by 
Eitschberger (1983)  is close to the spring brood of P. 
dulcinea. A Japanese taxon nesis Fruhstorfer, 1909 was also 
reported for the Sakhalin and South Kuriles, which is also given 
a species rank by Eitschberger (1983). . 

83. Pieris (napi) melete Menetries, 1858.


Range: Priamurye (known from  the  city  Blagoveshchensk  to  
the Gorin River), Primorye, NE. China, Korea, Japan. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in  two broods from middle May to early September. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae, Arabis hirsuta 
was reported for Primorye (Kurenzov, 1970), a number of other 
species - for Japan. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO As different from similar species of 
the napi group, the lower vein of the cell on the hind wing 
underside is heavily suffused with dark scales. Spring brood 
imago: F.w.l. 21-27 mm; the hind wing underside is light-yellow 
with the veins suffused, a distinct yellowish spot usually 
presenting at the base; on the fore wing underside the upper 
dark postdiscoidal spot is much smaller than the lower one, the 
traces of which are usually seen even in males. The summer 
brood imago: F.w.l.: 26-31 mm; on the fore wing upperside the 
apical dark spot is large and usually quadrangular, in the 
postdiscoidal area two spots are present in males, in females 
they are very large; the wing underside is white.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The continental part of the range is 
inhabited by the subspecies orientis Oberthur, 1881, 
described from the Askold Island and also considered by U. 
Eitschberger as a distinct species. 

GENUS PONTIA Fabricius, 1807.
Type species: Papilio daplidice Linnaeus, 1758.

  F.w.l.: 17-27 mm; the wing upperside is white; the fore wing 
has a black discoidal spot and separate spots at the apex; in 
females the hind wing has dark spots; the hind wing underside is 
yellowish-green or dull green with white spots; in the cell there 
is one white spot isolated from the others. Hibernation occurs at 
the pupal stage.
  The genus includes six species ranging in Eurasia and Africa.

84.  Pontia edusa (Fabricius, 1777)
(= daplidice auct. non Linnaeus, 1758).

TYPE LOCALITY: Central Europe.

RANGE: The non-tropical Eurasia, in Siberia penetrates as north as 
the middle taiga belt. 

HABITAT: dry meadows, steppes, waste lots, long fallows, fields, 

FLIGHT PERIOD: early May/September in 2-3 broods.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae: Alyssum, Arabis, 
Berteroa, Erysimum, Sisymbrium, Thlaspi, Turritis; Resedaceae: 
Reseda lutea, also reported are some Fabaceae: Vicia, Lathyrus, 
Pisum, Trifolium. Eggs: cylindrical with rounded apex and 14 
ribs, at first yellow, later become orange-yellow. According to 
observations in the Middle Ural (P. Gorbunov), the mature larva 
is blueish-gren with two pale-yellow stripes on either side, the 
head and body bears black warts and fine pubescence, black on 
the back and whitish on the ventral side; the head is light-
green and has two yellow spots above the eyes. The larvae live 
by families or solitarily. Pupa: the abdomen is coloured alike 
the larva: green with a brownish or greyish tint, tiny black 
dots, and yellowish-white streaks; the wing cases are evenly 
green with lengthwise rows of very fine black dots; the head 
apex and dorsal crests are brownish. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 18-27 mm. The hind wing 
underside is yellowish-green with separate white spots of 
different sizes, that in the cell being roundish. 

SYSTEMATIC NOTES: For a long time this species was known as 
Pontia daplidice L. However, the isozyme analysis has revealed 
that P. daplidice ranges in S Europe, N Africa and the Near 
East, while the temperate zone of Eurasia is inhabited by P. 
edusa F., which differs from the former species not only on the 
molecular level but also by the genitalia structure. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: the nominotypical subspecies ranges in 
Ural and Siberia, ssp. orientalis Kardakov, 1928 was reported from 
Zabaikalye, Priamurye, Primorye, and the Sakhalin. 

84a.  Pontia daplidice (Linnaeus, 1758)


RANGE: N Africa, S Europe, S Asia, in Russia is reported for S 
Primorye: the Kedrovaya Pad' Nature Reserve (Keskula, 1990) and 
the Gamov Peninsula (V. Dubatolov).


85.  Pontia chloridice (Hubner, 1808).

TYPE LOCALITY: the Balkans.

RANGE: The steppe and forest-steppe zones of Eurasia from Greece 
to Bol'shoy Khingan and Korea, the mountains of Central Asia, 
reported for the west of USA. 

HABITAT: steppes of various kind, steppen and forest-steppen 
meadows in open woods, birch groves, montane slopes. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in two broods in middle May/late June and 
middle July/September.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: various Brassicaceae, in 
Novosibirsk Region observed on 
Descurainia sophia (Korshunov, 1981), in Preduralye - on 
Sisymbrium junceum (Bartel, 1914). According to observations 
from N. Amercia, the eggs are yellow, later become orange; laid 
singly on various parts of the foodplant. Larva: yellowish-green 
or greenish-white, speckled with small black warts; the segment 
joints are orange or yellow; a light-green or yellowish stripe 
goes along the back; the head is light-green with black dots. 
Pupa: brownish-green with a light streak along the back and 
cream wing cases; the first and second abdominal segments are 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 17-22 mm. On the hind wing 
underside green colour extending along the veins forms two full 
waving bands; the white spot in the cell is elongate. 

86.  Pontia callidice (Hubner,  1805).

TYPE LOCALITY: the Swiss Alps.

RANGE: Polar and mountain regions of the non-tropical Eurasia, 
the north and west of N America. A local species. In 20-30th 
years of this century this montane species was first found in 
the West Siberian Lowland in the upper Ob' basin (at Kamen'-na-
Obi and Barnaul). In 1991-1993 it appeared to be quite common 
on the lowland in the forest-steppe and southern steppe zones 
from South and Middle Ural to the Ob' River and was also found 
in lowland steppes of S Zabaikalye. 

HABITAT: montane and lowland tundras, shingle banks, floodland 
meadows of rivers and brooks, steppefied south-exposed slopes; 
in the forest steppe zone found on pastures, wasting and long 
fallow lands at settlements, i.e. the habitats of Pontia edusa. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/August; in lowlands two broods 
develop, flying in middle May/late June and middle July/middle 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Brassicaceae; in Middle Ural 
found on Erysimum cheirantoides (P. Gorbunov), in Pribaikalye on 
Erysimum sp. and Brassica napus (V. Ivonin), in SE Transbaikalia 
the buterflies keeped to the riparian hickets of Dimorphostemon 
pectinatus (O. Kosterin, O. Berezina); from other parts of the 
range other Brassicaceae were reported, namely Arabis, Barbarea, 
Brassica, Descurainia, Draba, Erysimum, Lepidium, Sisymbrium, 
Thlaspi; and also Reseda lutea (Resedaceae) and Orostachys 
(Crassulaceae). Larva (according to observations of V. Ivonin in 
Pribaikalye): 35-40 mm long; greenish or blueish-green with 
lengthwise black and orange streaks; the body is covered by black 
warts and short black hairs; the head is grey with numerous 
black dots and a symmetrical V-like line. Pupa: 20-21 mm; muddy-
grey with sparse black dots.

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 20-26 mm. On the hind wing 
underside the greyish- or brownish-green ground colour is cleft 
between the veins by narrow triangular white spots. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: North Euroasia is occupied by the 
nominotypical subspecies. The butterflies from the southern and 
steppen regions usually have a lighter ground colour of the hind 
wing underside and somewhat narrower dark pattern. 


  F.w.l.: 16-26 mm. The wing upperside is white with a dark 
pattern and, sometimes, with orange areas on the fore wing; the 
hind wing underside is greenish with light spots of different 
sizes, one of which going from the cell to the fore margin. In 
our conditions only a single brood develops. The larvae feed on 
Brassicaceae; hibernation occurs at the pupal stage.

GENUS ZEGRIS Boisduval, 1836.
Type species: Papilio eupheme Esper, [1805].

  A West-Palearctic genus with two species.

87.  Zegris eupheme (Esper, [1805]).

TYPE LOCALITY: Crimea: surroundings of the city Sevastopol.

RANGE: NW Africa, Spain, SE Europe, S Ural (the surroundings of 
the cities Orsk and Orenburg), N and E Kazakhstan. A local 

HABITAT: steppen areas, mostly with chalk outcrops. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: late April/early June.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in S Europa. Foodplant: only 
Hirrschfeldia incana is known. Larva: short, stout, set with 
rather long hairs. Pupa: stout; in a frail cocoon. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 20-26 mm. The fore wing apex is 
stretched out but not pointed, with an orange spot on a black 
background. The hind wing underside is greenish-yellow with 
large roundish yellowish-white spots. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: S Ural is inhabited by ssp. eupheme.

GENUS MICROZEGRIS Alpheraky, 1913.
Type species: Pontia pyrothoe Eversmann, 1832.

  A monotypical West-Palearctic genus.

Microzegris pyrothoe (Eversmann, 1832).

TYPE LOCALITY: NW Kazakhstan: the valley of the Ural River: 

RANGE: Nizhnee Povolzhye [the lower Volga basin], South Preduralye 
[the western piedmont plain of Ural], Kazakhstan, Central Asia. 
This species has also been reported by H.J. Elwes (1899) for 
SW Altai, the village Kenderlik ("south of the Irtysh River"), 
according the collection by Ruckbeil, but so far has not been 
found within the territory of Russia. A rare species over its 
entire range. 

HABITAT: in the Volga valley the imagines were 
observed near bank bushes. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: April and May.

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 16-20 mm. The fore wing apex is 
black with an orange spot; the hind wing underside is greenish-
yellow with several large transversely elongated white spots. 

GENUS PARAMIDEA Kusnezov, 1929.
Type species: Anthocharis scolymus Butler, [1866].

  A monotypical genus.

88.  Paramidea scolymus (Butler, [1866]).


RANGE: Primorye northwards to Khabarovsk along the Ussuri valley, 
West, Central and North-East China, Korea, Japan. 

HABITAT: forest edges, roads, floodland meadows in broad-leaved 
and mixed forests, waste lands at settlements, coastal meadows. 
A common species. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: late April/early June. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982). 
Foodplants: Barbarea, Arabis, Cardamine, Draba, and other 
Brassicaceae; in Primorye was observed on Draba sp. and 
Descurainia sophia (Beljaev et al., 1989). Eggs: oval, at first 
white, later orange, laid singly on the pedicules and fruits of 
the foodplant. Larva: green with numerous black dots and white 
spiracular line on either side, covered with short hairs, it 
feeds on the seeds, fruits, buds and stems of the foodplant. 
Pupa: brown, with a longer head projection than in Anthocharis 
cardamines, hibernates. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 17-21 mm, the fore wing apex is 
stretched out and pointed, with a small orange spot in males. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from Primorye refer to 
ssp. mandschurica Ballow, 1930 and differ from Japanese ones by 
smallersize, reduction of the basal suffusion on the wing 
upperside, and somewhat smaller and paler orange spot at the 
fore wing apex in males.

GENUS ANTHOCHARIS Boisduval, Rambur et Graslin, [June, 1833].
Type species: Papilio cardamines Linnaeus, 1758.

  A Holarctic genus with ten species.

89.  Anthocharis cardamines (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: The non-tropical Eurasia northwards (in Siberia) to the 
forest-tundra, the Sakhalin, Hokkaido.

HABITAT: river and brook banks, wood edges, glades, various 
meadows (including highland ones), wasting lands, fields, settlements. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: May/middle July, in the subpolar and alpine 
regions - late June/late July. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Cardamine, Alliaria, Arabis, 
Barbarea, Brassica, Erysimum, Hesperis, Sinapis, Sisymbrium, 
Thlaspi, Turritis and other Brassicaceae, Reseda lutea. Eggs: 
elongate, with 13-14 ribs, at first yellowish-white, later 
orange, laid singly on the flowers, pedicules and young fruits 
of the foodplant. Larva: thin, blueish-green, covered by fine 
wrinkles and black dots, on either side with white a stripe at 
dark spiracles. It feeds on the flowers petals and fruits of the 
foodplant. Pupa: green, yellowish or brown, with much extended 
and pointed head; there are a white streak with tiny red dots on 
either side; hibernates. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 17-25 mm. The wings are of a 
common shape; the hind wing underside green with a white marble 
pattern; the fore wing apex has black marginal spots extended 
along the outer margin; in males the distal parts of the fore 
wing is brightly orange. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: This species displays little geographic 
variation, which is much less than individual. Nevertheless, the 
following taxa has been described for our territory: progressa 
Sovinskyi, 1905 (Irkutsk), sajana Verity, 1908 (E Sayan), 
sibirica Haanshus, 1920 (W Siberia); septentrionalis Wnukovsky, 
1927 (Yakutsk); koreana Matsumura, 1937 (Korea), kobayashii 
Matsumura, 1925 (Sakhalin); all they are very close to the 
nominotypical subspecies. 

GENUS EUCHLOE Hubner, [1819].
Type species: Papilio ausonia Hubner, var. esperi Kirby, 1871.

  F.w.l.: 17-25 mm. The wings are white, in females often 
suffused with black and, sometimes, yellow scales; the fore wing 
apex has a wide black area containing white spots; the orange 
spots are absent. The butterflies are very variable 
individually and geographically.
  A Holarctic genus with nine close species. 

superspecies ausonia

  F.w.l.: 17-25 mm. The hind wing underside ground colour is 
yellowish- or dull-green with a marble pattern of white spots of 
more or less rounded shape and various size. A group complicated 
with respect of taxonomy, includes about five species. The 
taxonomy within the genus was problematic until recently because 
of use of the name simplonia Freyer, 1829, which in fact is a 
synonym for ausonia, while the butterflies from the Simplon Pass 
in the Alps have been described under the name simplonia 
Boisduval, 1828, that is now fixed by W.Back (1990, Atalanta, 
Bd.21, pp. 187-205). 

90.  Euchloe (ausonia) ausonia (Hubner, 1799)
(= simplonia Freyer, 1929).


RANGE: S Europe, N Africa, Anterior and Central Asia, South and 
Middle Ural, Central, West amd South-East Altai Mts. 

HABITAT: in Ural: meadow areas in various forests and birch 
groves, along wind strips; Rather a rare species. In Altai: 
forest and highland meadows at 1600-2300 m above sea level, most 
frequently at brook banks. 
FLIGHT PERIOD: in S Ural: middle May/August. In Middle Ural the 
butterflies of a small spring form fly in June, while soon in July 
larger butterflies of a summer form appear, with a greater 
yellow suffusion on the hind wing underside. It is not excluded 
they are in fact different species. In ALtai: middle June/late 
July depending on the locality, in one brood.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Europe (Back, 1990; other 
authors). Foodplants: Barbarea, Sinapis alba, Sisymbrium, 
Turritis, and other Brassicaceae. Eggs: spine-shaped, pale-
brown. Mature larva: 30-35 mm in length, green or ochre-coloured 
with two wide stripes along either side, sometimes little 
expressed, speckled with rather large dark dots, the spiracles 
are white with dark rims. Pupa: with the head sharply pointed, 
pale brown or ochre-coloured with a dark line along the back and 
dark streaks along the anal margin of the wing cases. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 18-25 mm. As different from E. 
naina, the fore wing costal margin is white with black marks; 
white spots on the hind wing underside are larger; sexual dimorphism is 
weakly expressed.  

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: Ural is inhabited by the subspecies 
volgensis Krulikovsky, 1907 described from Saratov by large 
summer individuals. The butterflies of a small spring "form" 
were described under the name uralensis 
Bartel, 1902. Both forms differ from the nominotypical 
subspecies, from Central Europe, with an enlarged black discal 
spot on the fore wing. Altai is inhabited by ssp. dubatolovi 
Korshunov, 1995; the original description is follows:
   "... The butterflies from Altai, described below, differ from 
the western subspecies by a faded muddy-green hind wing 
underside ground colour and smaller white spots. By these and 
other traits they look like a peculiar transition  (especially 
in the population of the Chuya River valley) to E. naina. [In fact 
the butterflies from Chuya valley were not mentioned in the 
description, they belong to E. naina , that was stated below]) . 
   HOLOTYPE: a male. F.w.l: 22 mm. The wing upperside is white; 
the fore wing apex is suffused with dark scales, the suffusion 
containing three white spots; the dark discoidal spot is 
crescent-shaped. The fore wing underside is white, the dark 
discoidal spot with a contrasted light discoidal vein; the apex 
is suffused with dark and green scales and has the same white 
spots as on the upperside; the costal margin with short black 
striae. The hind wing underside is greyish-green with white spots 
of different sizes, mainly with sharp edges.
   ALLOTYPE: a female. F.w.l.: 23 mm. The wing upperside is 
white; the dark discoidal spot is large, concave on its sides, 
and, as different from E. n. naina [an error - must be E. 
ausonia ausonia - Yu.K.], is not fused [along suffused veins] 
with the apical suffusion, which contains three elongate white 
   MATERIALS: the holotype: a male, Altai, Katunskiy mt. range, 15 
km SW of village Katanda, interfluve of the Kuragan and Kucherla 
rivers, alpine meadow, 2300 m, 13th July 1983 (V.V.Dubatolov 
leg.); the allotype: a female, the same locality, 14th July 1983 
(V.V.Dubatolov leg.); paratypes: Altai, Ust'-Kan district, 
Karlinskiy Pass, 15th July 1970 (Kosinykh leg.); a male - the 
same locality as for the holotype, 12th July 1983 (V.V.Dubatolov 
leg.); 1 male 1 female - Katunskiy mt. range, the Katun' river 
headwaters at the Kapchal river mouth, 1700 m, 9th July 1987 
(O.Kosterin leg.); a male - the Kapchal valley, 2300 m, 10th 
July 1987 (O.Kosterin leg.); 2 males 1 female - the Katun' 
headwaters, stow Altyn-Bulak, an old felled land, 1800 m, 13th 
July 1987 (O.Kosterin leg.); a male - Katunskiy mt. range, lower 
reaches of the Koksu river, 1600 m, 2th July 1988 (O.Kosterin 
leg.); a male - left bank of the Koksu river, long-forb meadow 
on wood opening, 1900 m, 12th July 1988 (O.Kosterin leg.); 1 
male 2 females - the Argem (Direntay) river (a tributary of the 
Koksu) headwaters, an alpine meadow, 2200 m, 21th July 1988 
(O.Kosterin leg.); a male, Kholzun mt. range, watershed of the 
Tigirek and Khamir river headwaters, 2300 m, 17th July 1983 
(V.A.Lukhtanov leg.). 
   The subspecies is named after the surname of Vladimir 
Vladimirovich [must be Viktorovich instead of Vladimirovich - 
Yu.K.], an entomologist of ISEA (Novosibirsk) who collected a 
part of the type series of the new subspecies. " 

91.  Euchloe (ausonia) naina (V. Kozhantshikov, 1923)
(= simplonia auct, non Boisduval, 1828; belia auct. non Cramer, 
TYPE LOCALITY: the West Sayan: Lake Buyba.

RANGE: The North of Middle Siberia, Yakutia, the Magadan region, 
Kamchatka, the mountains of Bureya (the Ezop mountain range), SE 
Altai, the Sayans, including North Mongolia, the mountains of E. 

HABITAT: in the mountains of South Siberia mostly highland 
meadows, in Altai - forest (rarely), subalpine (most 
frequently), and alpine meadows at altitudes of 1600-2300 m, 
observed also on barren south slopes at  1600 m above sea level; 
in the North - tundras, open larch or Betula ermani (or B. 
lanata) woods, steppefied south-exposed slopes, pebble banks, at 
altitudes of 200-1600 m. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/middle July. On the Suntar-Khayata 
mountain range (Yakutia) a last instar larva was found by 
L.I.Popova on Descurainia sophioides (Brassicaceae), which 
pupated on 25th of July, 1985, the pupa hibernated, and the 
imago hatched on 16th of May, 1986. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO 17-24 mm. The hind wing underside is 
dull green with more rounded white spots than in the previous 
species; the green colour predominates. In females the wings are 
suffused with yellow or black scales, often rather heavily, the 
black pattern on the fore wing is enlarged.

GEOGRAPHICAL VAIATION: The subspecies naina ranges in SE Altai, 
the Sayans and the mountains of Pribaikalye. In Yakutia, Magadan 
Region, and Kamchatka ssp. jacutia Back, 1990 ranges, which 
differs by on average smaller size and whitish tint of the 
majority of females.  The butterflies from Taymyr and the 
Putorana Plateau were described as ssp. kuznezovi Korshunov, 1995.
Original description was as follows:
   "...Below we describe the butterflies from the Yenisei River 
low reaches, Taymyr, and the Putorana Plateau. They are closer 
to the subspecies naina than to jacutia, but differ from the 
former by in average more narrow wings and a darker hind wing 
underside ground colour.
   HOLOTYPE: a male. F.w.l: 22 mm. The wing upperside is white; 
the fore wing costal margin from the base to the discoidal vein 
is suffused with black scales, further to the apex there are 
alternating black and white patches along the margin; the 
discoidal vein is accompanied by a figured dark spot which is to 
some extent more rounded than in E. naina naina. At the apex 
there are a dark stripe 2-3 mm wide which is parallel to the 
outer margin, and dark spots at the vein endings at the margin; 
the space between the stripe and the margin being generally white 
while in E. naina naina it is almost fully suffused. On the fore 
wing underside the dark discoidal spot is larger than in E.n. 
naina. The hind wing underside is almost exactly identical to 
that of E.n. naina, but the veins are not so conspicuous.
   ALLOTYPE: a female. F.w.l.: 23 mm. On the wing upperside the 
white ground colour is almost displaced by a dark suffusion, the 
white areas remaining only in the centre and at the edges of the 
wing. The hind wing underside ground colour is greyish-green 
without a dark suffusion; the veins are not contrasted.
   MATERIALS: the holotype - the Yenisey lower reaches, the 
Irbo-Keta river middle flow, 18th July 1982 (D.M.Pupavkin leg); 
allotype - the same locality, 21st July 1982; paratypes: 5 males 
3 females - the Yenisey lower reaches, the Rybnaya river middle 
flow, 12th-21st July 1982 a male - the Yenisey lower reaches, the 
Togbym river middle flow, 12th July 1982; 14 males 11 females - 
the Yenisey lower reaches, the Irbo-Keta river middle flow, 18th 
July 1982 (D.M.Pupavkin leg); a male - Taymyr, the Ary-Mas 
forest, July 1983 (Polovinkina leg.)
   The subspecies being describing was earlier reported 
(Korshunov, 1985) as E. ausonia arctica, as it was designated in 
the labels by Nikolay Yakovlevich Kusnezov (1873-1948), a well-
known Russian lepidopterologist and zoogeographist of the first 
half of this century.  " 

92.  Euchloe creusa (Doubleday and Hewitson, 1847).


RANGE: The mountains of South, Middle, and East Siberia, 
Chukotka, Kamchatka, the mountains of Bureya, Priamurye (the 
Blagoveshchensk environs, the Khekhtsir mountain range), 
Primorye (the Sasskii District), Mongolia, the north-west of 
North America. 

HABITAT: in South Siberia: meadows and glades in montane 
forests, stone steppes on slopes and in intermontane hollows, 
rocks; in the North -  open larch woods, steppefied south-
exposed slopes, montane tundras; in Primorye these butterflies were 
found in an oak/aspen replacement forest flying together with 
Paramidea scolymus

FLIGHT PERIOD: mostly June, locally (C Altai, Kamchatka) up to 
middle July. depending on the locality; early May in Primorye. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in N America (Scott, 1986). Foodplants: 
Draba lanceolata, Arabis glabra. Eggs are laid singly on the 
foodplant; the larvae feed on flowers and fruits. A probably 
foodplant in Primorye is Cardamine fritida, the flowers of 
which are regularly visited by the imagines. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO F.w.l.: 15-21 mm. The hind wing 
underside is dull green with numerous white spots, angular and 
irregular in shape, which are streched transversely. Similar 
species: E. naina, E. ausonia. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from Altai, which differ 
from other forms by a yellowish-green ground colour of the hind 
wing underside and so representing a clear-cut subspecies, were 
described as a "race" emiorientalis Verity, 1911 of Euchloe 
belia orientalis Bremer, 1864. The subspecies orientalis Bremer, 
1864 ranges in the Sayans, Zabaikalye, the Stanovoe Nagorye 
upland, E Mongolia, ?the mountains of Bureya; ssp. kurentzovi 
Beljaev, 1986 in North Siberia and Kamchatka; ssp. nemoralis 
Beljaev, 1986, was described from the Spassk district of 



GENUS GONEPTERYX [Leech], [1815].
Type species: Papilio rhamni Linnaeus, 1758.

  F.w.l.: 25-35 mm. The wing upperside is yellow in males and 
whitish in females; the dark outer border is absent; the outer 
margin of each wing has a tooth. The pupae have a pointed head, a 
blunt prominence on the back of the thorax and a very large one - 
on the ventral side at the wing cases; they are usually attached 
to leaf underside. The imagines hibernate. 
  An Eurasian genus with seven species.

93.  Gonepteryx maxima (Butler, 1885)
(= rhamni auct.).


RANGE: Middle and Low Priamurye (from the city Blagoveshchensk 
to the village Troitskoe), Primorye, NE China, Korea, 

HABITAT: dry open woods, bush thickets, wood edges. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: late July/October and, after hibernation, middle 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982). 
Foodplants: in Primorye Rhamnus ussuriensis (Graeser, 1888). 
Eggs: cigar-shaped, greenish-yellow; laid singly on the young 
leaves of the foodplant in May/June. Larva: green with a white 
spiracular line. Pupa: light-green with several brown spots. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 30-34 mm; the fore and hind 
wings are of the same colour, yellow in males and light-yellow 
in females. The medial spots are relatively large, about 2-2.5 
mm in diameter, of orange-red colour. Similar species: G. aspasia. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: On the continent there occurs the 
subspecies amurensis Graeser, 1888. 

94.  Gonepteryx rhamni (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: Europe. N Africa, the temperate Eurasia, including  the Tian- 
Shan, eastwards to S Zabaikalye (Kyakhta) and  northwards  to 
the middle taiga zone. 

HABITAT: wood edges, river valleys in deciduous forests, birch  
groves in the forest-steppe, woody mountain slopes,  

FLIGHT PERIOD: The butterflies appear from late June to middle 
August, depending on peculiarities ofthe season, the early  
emerged butterflies are capable of summer hibernation  
until autumn. Imagines  overwinter  in  various shelters and 
appear amongst the earliest butterflies on thaws in March/April. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Rhamnus catharia, Frangula 
alnus, and the bird cherry (Padus avium) was also reported 
(Migranov, 1991; and others). Eggs: conical, yellowish or 
greenish, laid singly on the young leaves of the foodplant. 
Larva: mat-green with uncontrasted whitish streaks along the 
green spiracles. Pupa: green with a light yellow lengthwise 
stripe on either side. The pupa is usually attached head-
downwards on the trunks, branches or stems of bushes and herbs. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 26-31 mm. The wings are yellow 
in males, greenish-white in females; medial spots is small, 
about 1-1.5 mm in diameter, of pale-orange colour. 

95.  Gonepteryx aspasia (Menetries, 1859).


RANGE: Priamurye (downstream to the Gorin River), Primorye, 
Central and North-East China, Korea, Japan. 

HABITAT: meadowy openings in valley and montane deciduous woods. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: late July/October and, after hibernation, 
April/middle May. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Japan (Fukuda et al., 1982). 
Foodplants: in Priamurye Rhamnus dahurica (Graeser, 1888). Eggs: 
at first white, later orange or red, laid on twigs of the 
foodplant. The larva resembles to that of G. maxima. Pupa 
differs from that of G. maxima by a smaller projection on the 
ventral side. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 26-30 mm. In 
males the fore wing upperside is bright yellow, the hind wing 
upperside is light yellow; the wings of females are greenish-
yellow; the medial spots are small, 1-1.5 mm in diameter. 
Similar species: G.maxima. 

TRIBUS COLIADINI Swainson, 1827.

GENUS COLIAS Fabricius in Illiger, 1807.
Type species: Papilio hyale Linnaeus, 1758.

  F.w.l.: 19-34 mm. The wing outline is even, without pointed 
projections. The wing ground colour varies from white to orange-
red or brownish-green. On the fore and, usually, hind wing there 
is a dark outer border often containing light spots. On the 
discoidal vein of the fore wing there is a black medial spot, 
while on that of hind wing - a light medial spot. The imagines 
often display an individual polymorphism but rather a weak 
geographical variation. Flight of these butterflies is strong 
and impetuous; some species are capable of substantial 
  The larvae of the majority of species are connected 
trophically with legumes. The pupae have a pointed head, a blunt 
prominence on the thorax back, and a larger one - on the ventral 
side at the wing cases. Hibernation occurs at the larval stage. 
  The genus includes about 70 species, the majority of which are 
connected with the mountains of C. Asia, N and S America. 

96.  Colias palaeno (Linnaeus, 1758).

TYPE LOCALITY: Sweden: Uppsala.

RANGE: The tundra, forest-tundra, and forest zones of Eurasia, the 
adjacent mountains, the Sakhalin, Japan, NE of North America. In 
the southern parts of the range the species is local and rare. 

HABITAT: in the northern range: various types of tundras, forest 
meadows, open coniferous forests, bogs; in the mountains: the 
forest belt up to 1800 m above sea level; in the forest-steppe 
zone: raised and transitory bogs (the so-called "ryams" and 

FLIGHT PERIOD: mostly late June/late July, in the polar and 
mountain regions - until middle August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Vaccinium uliginosum and V. 
myrtillus. Eggs: elongate, with 20 ribs, yellowish, later become 
red; laid singly or in small batches on the foodplant leaves. 
The young larvae eat the leaf mesophyl and leave veins, 
hibernate at the third instar in leaf fall. Last instar larva: 
green with bright-yellow lateral streaks outlined above with 
black lines; the body is covered with small warts. The larva 
just after hibernation eats the buds, later - the leaves. It 
usually rests on the central vein of the leaf; being disturbed 
it rolls itself into a ring. Pupa: greenish-yellow with darker 
wing cases and a yellowish streak along either side of the 
abdomen; its stage lasts for about 15 days. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 20-28 mm. In males the wing 
upperside is bright or pale yellow, rarely yellowish-white (f. 
cretacea Schilde); in females it is white, sometimes yellow (f. 
illgneri Ruhl.). In both sexes the black outer border is as a 
rule without light spots, sometimes with lengthwise light 
strokes between the veins in females. The medial spot on the 
fore wing is absent or present as an elongated stroke. 
Individual variation is substantial. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: into a great extent is masked by an 
individual variation, most greatly expressed in the forest-
tundra zone. Ural, the forest-tundra and forest zones of West 
Siberia are inhabited by ssp. palaeno. East of the Enisei River 
the subspecies orientalis Staudinger, 1892 (= ?arctica Verity, 
1908; = sachalinensis Matsumura, 1925; = karaganica Kurenzov, 
1970) is widely distributed, differing from the nominotypical 
one by in general smaller size, a bright lemon-yellow ground 
colour in males and a wider dark border.  The butterflies from 
the typical and arctic tundras of Siberia cam be attributed to 
ssp. lapponica Staudinger, 1871, described from the northern 
Lapland. In these populations lighter males with a narrower 
border are predominating. A Korean subspecies sugitani Esaki was 
reported for the southern Skihote-Alin' Mountains. 

97.  Colias erate (Esper, 1804).

TYPE LOCALITY: the Volga basin: Sarepta.

RANGE: The arid and semiarid regions of the temperate and 
subtropical Eurasia, in Siberia northwards to the southern 
forest-steppe, in the Far East - to the so-called sub-taiga, 
i.e. the relatively narrow belt of contiguous deciduous forests 
to the south of the coniferous taiga; the Sout Sakhalin, the 
South Kuriles, Japan. 

HABITAT: montane and lowland steppes, steppefied meadows, waste 
lands, fields, settlements, dry open pine and larch forests. 
This species is rather rare in Siberia. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in S Ural aswell as in S Primorye in 2-3 broods, 
May/September, depending on the cite. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Fabaceae, such as Melilotus 
officinalis, Glycirrhiza korshinskyi reported for S Ural 
(Migranov, 1991),  Trifolium, Vicia, Glycine reported for the 
southern Far East (Kurenzov, 1970); sometimes this species 
becomes a pest of the soyabean. Eggs: greenish-white, later 
become orange. Larva, according to observations in Japan (Fukuda 
et a., 1982): greenish-white with a yellow spiracular line and 
orange and black dots at the hind margin of each segment, 
covered with tiny hairs. In Europe the larva was described 
(Mansell, 1987) as velvety green, covered witth small warts and 
hairs, the spiracular line is white with a yellowish upper rim 
accompanied with reddish strokes, below the line a ground colour 
become lighter and black spots of an irregular shape present on 
each segment, those on segments 4-10 being smaller than on the 
others; the spiracles are white, usually dark-rimmed. Pupa: 
light-green, sometimes with a yellowish streak on either side; 
black dots scattered over the body concentrate at the margins of 
wing cases. Hibernation - either at larval or pupal stage. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 22-30 mm. The wing upperside 
is brightly-yellow in males, of the same colour or white (f. 
albina Biener) in females; orange males and females (f. 
chrisodona Kindermann) are known from S Ural, which resemble C. 
croceus. As different from C. hyale, the dark border of the fore 
wing reaches the anal edge and (except for males of ssp. erate) 
contains isolated spots of the ground colour. The border on the 
hind wing is very narrow or split into separate spots. The 
medial spot on fore wing is round. The specimens from the 
mountains of S Siberia can be distinguished reliably from C. 
hyale only by the structure of the male genitalia, in which the 
valva is noticeably widened at the middle (see Fig...). 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The nominotypical subspecies is rather 
common locally in S. Ural, Kazakhstan and the Altai piedmonts 
but hardly penetrates into the West Siberian Lowland. Further 
eastwards a group of subspecies ranges which are sometimes 
considered as separate species C. polyographus and is 
characterized by a presence of light spots on the fore wing dark 
border in both sexes. The subspecies polyographus Motchulsky, 
1860 proper ranges in Zabaikalye, the southern Far East and the 
Sakhalin. The ssp. naucratis Fruhstorfer, 1909 is known by few 
findings from S Pribaikalye (the settlement Taezhnyi) and 
Prisayanye (the environs of Krasnoyarsk), which is more common 
in Mongolia; it differs from polyographus by a smaller size, by 
reduction of dark border at the fore wing anal angle and on the 
hind wing, that makes this species to resemble C. hyale. The 
butterlies from the S Kuriles are known under the name  tomarius 
Bryk, 1942 (=tokotana Bryk, 1942) and differ from the 
continental ones by a paler ground colour and a bleeched border; 
the first brood specimens from the Sakhalin are similar to them. 

98.  Colias hyale (Linnaeus, 1758).


RANGE: The temperate Eurasia eastwards to the Prilenskoe 
Plateau, the Stanovoe Nagorye upland and E Transbaikalia,  in 
the North locally reaches the polar regions (the Lower Priobye: 
Labytnangi), in the mountains rises up to the tree-line. 

HABITAT: meadows of various types, fields, fallow and 
waste lands, settlements. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in southern parts of the range in 2-3 broods in 
middle May/September, in the North - in a single brood in late 
June/early July. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Fabaceae, such as Vicia, 
Coronilla, Chamaecystis, Lotus, Trifolium, and, especially, the 
alfalfa (Medicago). Eggs: bottle-shaped with 26-28 ribs, 
whitish, later become reddish. Larva: dark-green with a darker 
dorsal side, yellow lateral lines and pink spiracles. The larva 
of spring/summer brood hibernates in the second instar inside a 
silk-spun rolled leaf. Pupa: grey or greenish, with yellow 
lateral streaks. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 20-30 mm. In males the wing 
upperside is pale-yellow, rarely white (f. albescens Metschler, 
1922) or yellowish-orange (f. junior Geest, 1905), in males - 
whitish, rarely yellow (f. inversa Alpheraky). In both sexes the 
outer border on the fore wing contains large light spots, the 
last of them at the anal angle being fused with the light wing 
area. As different from a similar species C. erate, in male 
genitalia the valva is not widened at the middle (see Fig...). 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: is poorly known in Siberia. The 
nominotypical subspecies inhabits Ural and South Siberia; the 
taxon altaica altaica Verity, 1911 (type locality - the Chuya 
River valley) is very close to it; from Yakutia (the Vilyuy 
River) ssp. pallidis Fruhstorfer, 1910 was described, diffeing 
by a paler ground colour im males and reduction of the 
submarginal dark spots on the wing underside; similar 
butterflies are known from Pribaikalye, from where (Irkutsk) the 
taxon irkutskana Staudinger, 1929 was described. 

SYSTEMATIC NOTES: There are no reliable reports of the South-
European species Colias alfacariensis Ribbe, 1905 (=C. australis 
Verity, 1911) from Siberia, however, in forest-steppe areas from 
S Ural to Pribaikalye larger and brighter specimens with a well 
expressed border on the hind wings (external characters of C. 
alfacariensis) are found. Moreover the taxon saissanica 
Reissinger, 1989, was recently described from Lake Zaissan, 
which lies between the Altai and Tarbagatai Mts. (East 
Kazakhstan) as a subspecies of C. alfacariensis. Further studied 
are needed, including examination of the preimaginal phases by 
which these species differ reliably. A mature larva of C. 
alfacariensis has two yellow stripes on either side, each 
accompanied with a row of ajacent quadrangular black spots 
situated on segment hind margins (Henriksen, Kreutzer, 1892). 

99.  Colias mongola Alpheraky, 1897.

TYPE LOCALITY: Mongolia: Urga (at present Ulan-Bator)

RANGE: The mountains of Mongolia, West China, Central and SE 
[Russian] Altai Mts. (known from the  Kurayskiy,  
Severochuyskiy,  Saylyugem, and Katunskiy mountain ranges), Tuva 
(Lukhtanov, Likhtanov, 1994), S Pribaikalye (Baranchikov, 1979). 
A local species. 

HABITAT:  short-forb alpine meadows at brook sources, detrituous 
ridges with sparse tundra vegetation, at altitudes of 2400-2900 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: not studied. Probable foodplant in Altai: 
Oxytropis oligantha (Kosterin, 1994a). 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 19-23 mm. The wing upperside 
is muddy-brownish-green; the dark outer border is wide, containig 
a row of elongate yellowish spots; on the hind wing upperside 
there is a whitish stroke between the medial spot and the wing 

100.  Colias tyche Bober, 1812.
(= melinos Eversmann, 1847)

TYPE LOCALITY: Pribaikalye.

RANGE: The polar regions of Eurasia and Alaska, the mountains of 
the temperate Asia. 

HABITAT: meadow and steppe patches on southern slopes, river 
terraces, in the extreme northern regions - willow thickets in 
typical tundras; in the Upper Priamurye - raised bogs with 
larch, open oak woods on dry slopes (Sviridov, 1981a), in the 
mountains - up to 2400 m (Central Altai). 

FLIGHT PERIOD: depending on locality, from late May (Zabaikalye) 
to August (the Taymyr Peninsula). 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Scandinavia (Henriksen,
Kreutzer, 1983). Foodplants: Astragalus alpinus and Vaccinium
are known from Scandinavia, Oxytropis nigrescens is reported
from Taymyr (Korshunov et al., 1985), Caragana sp. - from Altai
(V. Barkhatov). Eggs: pale-yellow, ribbed, barrel-shaped, laid singly on
the stems and leaves of the foodplant. Larva: green with two
yellow lengthwise stripes on the back and a red line beneath
them and a white spiracular line on either side; the body is
covered with sparse hairs up to 0.8 mm long. It hibernates,
sometimes repeatedly. Pupa: green, yellowish-green, or straw-
coloured, with a slightly darker back.

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 18-28 mm. The wing upperside 
is whitish, with yellowish or greenish tint; on the fore wing 
the outer border is pale and contains a row of large light 
spots, they often fuse to split the border into two parallel 
ones. Similar species: C. nastes.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: is mostly masked by an individual 
variation. The subspecies werdandi Setterschtadt, 1840, 
occupying the extreme North of Europe, belongs in fact to this 
species.. North Siberia, from the Yamal Peninsula to the Magadan 
Region, is inhabited by ssp. herzi Staudinger, 1901. Besides, 
two taxa were described from this area: zemblida Verity, 1911 
from the Novaya Zemlya Isles and, by one male from the Okhota 
River, relicta Kurenzov, 1970. (According to the opinion of J. 
Troubridge, it is identical to the Canadian thula Hovanitz, 
1915, which is considered to be a colour morph of Colias boothii 
Curtis, 1875 which, in turn, is considered by some authors as a 
hybrid between C. hecla and C. nastes.) The subspecies tyche (= 
melinos Eversmann, 1847) ranges in Pribaikalye and the East 
Sayan, it differs from more northern butterflies by in general 
lighter ground colour of the wing upperside. The taxa  montana 
Verity, 1911 (Altai Mts.),  vitimensis Austaut, 1899 (the 
Stanovoe Nagorye upland); deckerti Verity, 1909 (Zabaikalye); 
chryseis Verity, 1911 (the Upper Priamurye) are very close to 

101.  Colias nastes Boisduval, 1832.

TYPE LOCALITY: the Labrador Peninsula. 

RANGE: The north of East Siberia, of the Far East (including 
Kamchatka), and of North America. A local species.  

HABITAT: shingle banks, steppefied south-exposed bank slopes,  
alpinotype meadows and montane tundras. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: July/middle August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in North America (Scott, 1986). 
Foodplants: Astragalus, Oxytropis, Hedysarum, and also Salix 
arctica. A biennial species. Larva: dark-green with small black 
dots, two yellowish streaks along the back and a white line on 
either side; hibernates twice, in early and the last instars.

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 18-26 mm. The wing upperside 
is more strongly suffused with dark and greenish scales than in 
C. tyche, the light spots on the border are smaller and do not 
fuse to the ground colour. The fore wing underside is ash-grey, 
the hind wing underside is yellowish-green. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: In the Suntar-Khayata mountain range  
and the basins of Yana and Indigirka Rivers the  subspecies  
jacutica Kurenzov, 1970 (= jacuttica Ferris, 1985; = jacuticola  
Weiss et Mracek,  1989) is distributed, which is characterized 
by a smoky-brown wing upperside with a wide border with 
contrasted white spots on both fore and hind wings; from 
Chukotka and the  Kolyma  basin  the subspecies sibirica 
Kurenzov, 1970, has been described,  the name of which was 
preoccupied by Colias aurora sibirica Lederer, 1853, so, this 
name was replaced by us with the name dezhnevi Korshunov, 1995 
(etymology: Semen Dezhnev - a  Russian kazak who first sailed 
round the Chukotka Peninsula). In this subspecies the wing 
upperside is pale-yellowish-green in males and pale-yellow in 
females, on the fore wing the outer border is split by a row of 
large light spots into two parallel fragments. 

102.  Colias chrysotheme (Esper, 1781).

TYPE LOCALITY: Hungary: Cremnitz.

RANGE: The steppen and forest-steppen zones from Central Europe to 
East Zabaikalye, the mountains of East Kazakhstan, South Siberia, 
and Mongolia. 

HABITAT: lowland and montane steppefied meadows up to the 
altitude of 2200 m, less frequently - fields and long-fallow 
lands. The imagines were observed to feed on Aster alpinus, 
Dracocephalum nutans, Brassica.

FLIGHT PERIOD: in South Ural and the forest-steppe zone of West 
Siberia in two broods in May and July/August, in Altai and 
further eastwards - in a single brood in middle June/late July. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Central Europe (Niculescu, 1963; 
other authors) Foodplants: Astragalus and Vicia are known. Eggs: 
cylindrical with pointed apex; at first white, later become 
yellowish. The young larva is muddy-green with a dark head. 
Mature larva: green with numerous small lengthwise-directed 
reddish strokes and a white lateral line on either side (which 
is more distinct in the fourth instar); the ventral prolegs are 
greenish-yellow. The larva feeds at night. Pupa: greenish-yellow 
with dark markings on the edges of the projections and the wing 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 21-29 mm. The wing upperside 
usually is yellowish-orange or orange in both sexes. The yellow 
males and females (f. shugurovi Krulikowsky, 1903) and white 
females (f. hurlei Aigner-Abafi, 1902) are known from Ural. The 
outer border in males is 3-4 mm wide, with conspicuous yellowish 
veins throughout its length; in females it is 4-5 mm wide, with 
a row yellow spots, which is incomplete on the fore wing. In the 
male the androconial spot is absent. Similar species: C. 
thisoa, C. croceus.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: In the southern Ural the nominotypical 
subspecies is distributed, South Siberia, from Zauralye to S 
Zabaikalye is inhabited by ssp. andre Hemming, 1933 (instead  
of sibirica Grum-Grzhimailo, described from the environs of 
Krasnoyarsk) differing from the nominotypical subspecies by a 
pale orange-yellow ground colour and a wider border. Very 
peculiar butterflies of the Altai Mountains, the Sayans, and the 
mountains of Tuva, differing from lowland subspecies by a more 
even and bright colouration of the wing upperside, narrower 
light streaks along the veins in the dark marginal band in males 
and darker and more contrasted colouration of females, which 
tend to resemble C. thisoa by these characters, were described 
as Colias chrysotheme elena P. Gorbunov, 1995. Original 
description is as follows: 
"   MALE: F.w.l. 24.4-27.9 mm (26.2 mm in the holotype). The 
wing upperside is light-orange with a narrow yellowish stripe 
along the fore wiong fore margin and an area of the same colour 
at the anal margin of the hind wing. A slight suffusion with 
dark scales is noticeable on the hind wing. The marginal band on 
the fore wing in its middle part is 3.5-5 mm wide, usually all 
over its length it is cut through with narrow light [streaks 
along the] veins, which most often don't reach the fringe. The 
maximum width of the marginal band on the hind wing is 2.4-4 mm; 
light venal streaks  on it are even narrower than on the fore 
wing, in some specimens they are hardly seen at the internal 
margin of the band. Underside the ground colour of the hind wing 
is yellow, that in the central area of the fore wing is orange-
yellow, the pattern is as in the subspecies andre. The genitalia 
are alike those in C. chrysotheme andre and C. thisoa [the 
statement concerning thisoa is evidently of no relevance - 
   FEMALE: F.w.l. 25.5-28.7 mm (27.6 mm in the allotype). The 
fore wing upperside is bright orange-red (while in the 
subspecies andre they are yellwoish-orange or orange-yellow) 
with a dark suffusion in the basal area and at the fore margin. 
The marginal band on the fore wing is blackish-brown, 4.8-6.0 mm 
wide in its narrowest part, with very contrasted 6-7 yellwo 
spots. The black discal spot is large, usually of a triangular 
shape. The hind wing upperside is muddy-orange (much darker than 
in the females of andre) with an orange discal spot about 2 mm 
in diameter. On the hind wing the marginal band contains two 
yellow spots at the apex, four other yellow spots interrupt the 
band fusing with the ground colour at its internal margin. The 
discal spot is oval-shaped, 3.0-3.6 mm long. The wing upperside 
ground colour is greenish-yellow, but orange in the central area 
of the fore wing. There is a row of 3-5 black spots along the 
outer margin of the wore wing. The discal spot on the fore wing 
underside is somewhat larger than on the upperside and contains 
a light dot. On the hind wing underside just above an oval 
silvery discal spot there is an additional small silvery spot.
   MATERIALS: The holotype: a male - 29.06.1993, SE Altai, the 
village Aktash (V. Barkhatov). The allotype: a female - 
26.07.1982, Tuva, Choon-Khem (O. Fileva). Paratypes: 3 males - 
2-3.07.1971 , Tuva, the settlement Shuurmak,a steppe (S. 
Nikolaev); a female - 25.06.1971, the same locality; a female - 
16.07.1980, Altai Mts., the Seminskii Pass (Yu. Korshunov); 2 
males - 25.06.1992, SE ALtai, the village Aktash (V. Barkhatov); 
14 males 1 female - 27-29.06.1993, the same locality."

103.  Colias thisoa Menetries, 1832.

TYPE LOCALITY: Daghestan, the mountain Shakhdag.

RANGE: The mountain regions of Asia Minor, the Caucasus, the Elburs, 
Central Asia, East Kazakhstan, Central and SE Altai Mts., Tuva 
(the Moren River), the East Sayan (the Mondy village environs). 
A local species.

HABITAT: meadowy steppe areas on slopes and plateaux at 
altitudes of 400-2400 m, together with C. chrysotheme. The 
feeding of imago was   observed on the flowers of Dracocephalum 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/late July.   

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Astragalus and Oxytropis are 
known from the Caucasus (Nekrutenko, 1990). Hibernation - at the 
larval stage. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 22-28 mm. The wing upperside 
is orange in males and orange-red in females; in males the outer 
border is 2-3 mm wide with weakly dentate inner margin, on which 
the veins can be contrasted by orange scales only at the apex; 
in females it is 3-4 mm wide and contains a row, usually 
incomplete (sometimes absent), of rather small yellow spots, the 
hind wing upperside in females is strongly suffused with dark 
scales. The androconial spot in males is absent. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: the South Siberian butterflies in 
general resemble those from Central Asia, from where the 
subspecies aeolides Grum-Grshimailo, 1890 (type locality: 
Karategin, Zaalai) and urumtsiensis Verity, 1909 (type locality: 
Urumqi) have been described. The butterflies deom the highlands 
of Central and SE Altai, as different from those from the 
piedmont steppes of W Altai, usually are smaller and have a 
narrower border. 

104. Colias hyperborea Grum-Grshimailo, 1899.

TYPE LOCALITY: the mouth of the Vilyuy River, the Yana River (at 
Verkhoyansk and the mouth of the Adycha River), the Kolyma 

RANGE: The northern Middle Siberia, East Siberia, W Chukotka, 
the East Sayan, Pribaikalye, Zabaikalye. 

HABITAT: steppe-like south-exposed slopes, edges of larch woods, 
bank meadows, shingle banks, in the Ochot coast of the Koni 
Peninsula the species was restricted to south-exposed loam 
bluffs of the coastal terrace with sparse mesophilous 
vegetation with numerous flowers (Kosterin, 1993b). 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: not studied. On the Suntar-Khayata mountain 
range oviposition was observed by V.V. Dubatolov on Astragalus 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 22-27 mm. The wing upperside 
is orange in both sexes. The outer border is uninterrupted in 
males and contains a row, usually full, of yellow spots in 
females. As different from similar species C. viluensis and C. 
hecla, in males there is a pink androconial area at the very 
base of the hind wing costal margin.  

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: poorly studied. From the town 
Srednekolymsk environs the taxon viluensoides Verity, 1909 was 
SYSTEMATIC NOTES: Judging by the presence of the androconial 
spot, V.V. Dubatolov (personal communication) stated the taxa 
tuncuna Austaut, 1912 (type locality: the Tunkinskie Goltsy 
mountain range within the East Sayan) and kurnakovi 
Kurenzov,1970 (described by a single specimen from the 
Omsukchanskiy mountain range in the Magadan Region as a 
subspecies of C. hecla) to belong to this species. 

105. Colias viluensis Menetries, 1859.

TYPE LOCALITY: E Siberia, the Vilyuy River.

RANGE: the Putorana Plateau, Yakutia, the Magadan Region, 
Pribaikalye, Zabaikalye, the mountains of Bureya, NE Mongolia, 
?Chukotka, ?Alaska. 

HABITAT: highland and valley meadows, less frequently open larch 
stands, montane tundras. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in Zabaikalye and the Upper Priamurye middle 
June/middle July. In the northern range the imagines can fly 
together with C. hyperborea, but appear 7-10 days later, usualy 
in late June. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 22-27 mm. The wing upperside 
is bright-orange or orange-yellow (f. sulphureaflava Sheljuzhko, 
1918) in males and bright-orange, less frequently white (f. alba 
Verity, 1909), in females. The outer border in males is 
uninterrupted, about 4 mm wide, in females it usually contain a 
full row of yellow or white spots; as different from C. 
hyperborea, the androconial spot in males is absent. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The nominotypical subspecies 
inhabits the northern part of the range, the subspecies dahurica 
Austaut, 1912 ranges in Pribaikalye and Zabaikalye. 

SYSTEMATIC NOTES: From the Olenyok and Yana River basins the 
species C. aquilonaris Grum-Grshimailo, 1899 was described. 
According to the original diagnosis (Grum-Grshimailo, 1899) the 
main specific feature of this species separating it from C. 
hecla consists in dark muddy-yellow colouration of the wing 
underside and the wings being wider and of a somewhat different 
shape; the outer border is also wider, especially at the fore 
wing apex. According to a personal communication of V.V. 
Dubatolov, the type of this taxon, preserved in the collection 
of the Zoological Institute in St.Petersburg, is conspecific to 
C. viluiense. 

106. Colias hecla Lefebvre, 1836.


RANGE: The polar regions of Eurasia and North America. 

HABITAT: lowland dry herbage-grass tundras, on flat elevations 
in marshy areas, meadows in river and brook valleys, at willow 
thickets; these butterflies were found in the extreme northern 
wood Ary-Mas in the Taymyr Peninsula. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: July/middle August. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Lapland (Henriksen, Kreutzer,
1982). Foodplants: Astragalus alpinus, Trifolium repens
(Fabaceae), Arctostaphylos, Vaccinium (Vacciniaceae), Dryas
octopetala (Rosaceae); in N America (Scott, 1986) - also Salix
arctica (Salicaceae); in the Polar Ural P. Gorbunov observed
oviposition on Hedysarum sp. Eggs: yellowish or orange, barrel-
shaped with about 17 ribs, laid singly or in small batches on
the foodplant. Larva: green with a yellow line on either side, a
dark-green spot on each segment beneath them, and a whitish-
yellow spiracular line; spiracles reddish. Hibernation occurs on
either larval or pupal stage. Pupa: light-green dorsally, dark-
green laterally, with yellowish lateral streaks, light green
wing cases, abdomen may be olive-brown.

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 18-24 mm. The wing upperside 
is usually orange, less frequently white in females; the outer 
border in males is uninterrupted, in females it contains usually 
a full row of yellow spots. As different from C. hyperborea, the 
border is in general narrower, the hind wing underside is darker 
as being suffused by greenish-grey scales, the nacreous discal 
spot has a wider dark-pinkish rim; the androconial spot is 
absent in males. Similar species: C. viluensis, C. hyperborea. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The butterflies from the Polar Ural and 
the northern West Siberia are most close to the subspecies 
orientis Wnukovsky, 1929 (pro  orientalis Grum-Grshimailo, 
1893), known from Yakutia, the Magadan Region and Chukotka. From 
a Lapland susbspecies sulitelma Aurivillius, 1890 they differ by 
in general a wider border, which in females contains smaller and 
more clear-cut light spots, alwaus separated from the ground 
colour on the fore wings. A report of C. hecla orientalis for 
Altai (Rehnelt, 1983 in Nota Lepidoptera 6(4): 244) was based on 
both wrong labelling and wrong identification (in fact it was 
Colias hyperborea). 

107. Colias heos (Herbst, 1792) (pro Papilio aurora Esper, 
1781, nec Papilio aurora Cramer, 1780;  =sibirica Lederer, 1892).


RANGE: This local species ranges from Verkhnee Priobye (the 
surroundings of cities Barnaul, Tomsk, in the Novosibirsk Region 
at the village Kargat and the Baksa River) through the mountains 
of South Siberia and Mongolia to Priamurye, Primorye and NE 

HABITAT: various meadows, meadow steppes, in Zabaikalye and the 
Far East also rough southern slopes and fields. 

FLIGHT PERIOD: middle June/middle July, in the mountains - to 
late July. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants in Primorye: Vicia, Astragalus, 
and other Fabaceae, including the  cultivated soyabean (Glycine 
max) (Kurenzov, 1970). Hibernation at the larval (Priobye) or 
pupal (the Far East) stages. The pupa is attached to the 
foodplant or herbs with large stems. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 25-32 mm. This is a remarkably 
variable species. The wing upperside colouration in males is 
orange of various aspects, in females it can be orange, muddy-
orange, sometimes almost black (f. nigra Tshugunov, 1914), white 
(f. chloe Eversmann, 1847), or white with a slight dark (f. 
obscurissima Verity, 1911) or orange (f. decolorata Staudinger, 
1897) suffusion, sometimes salad-green with an orange spot (f. 
semenovi Standel, 1960). In any case in both sexes the veins are 
to some extent suffused with dark scales. In females the outer 
border contains a row of yellow or white spots, which is 
incomplete on the fore wing. The males have an orange 
androconial area at the hind wing base upperside. 

108. Colias myrmidone (Esper, 1781).

TYPE LOCALITY: Hungary: Turnau.

RANGE: Central and Eastern Europe, Middle and South Ural, the south 
of the Kurgan and Tyumen' Regions. 

HABITAT: forest and forest-steppe meadows, edges of birch or 
pine woods. The imagines feed mostly on the flowers of Fabaceae 

FLIGHT PERIOD: in South Ural in two broods in June and August, 
respectively; in Middle Ural usually a single brood in middle 
June/middle July. 

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: Foodplants: Chamaecytisus ruthenicus is 
known. Eggs: green. Larva: green with a dark back line and a 
light-green line on either side, speckled with dark dots. Pupa: 
green with a yellowish lateral stripe on either side and tiny 
dark dots on the ventral side of the abdomen; it is usually 
attached to a large stem. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w..l.: 23-28 mm. The wing upperside 
is orange with noticeable violet bloom in males and orange, less 
frequently white (f. alba Staudinger, 1871) or yellow (f. 
flavescens Garbowski, 1892) in females. In males the outer 
border is 3-4 mm wide with the veins of the same colour, in 
females it usually contains a row of seven yellow spots. The 
males have a light-orange androconial area at the hind wing base 
upperside. Similar species: C. croceus.

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: Ural and Zauralye are inhabited by  the  
subspecies  ermak Grum-Grshimailo, 1890, differing from the 
nominotypical one by a somewhat larger size and a brighter 
ground colour. . 

109. Colias crocea (Geoffroy in Fourcroy, 1785).

TYPE LOCALITY: France: Parice.

RANGE: Europe, N Africa, Anterior Asia. The species is capable of 
long migrations. In Middle and South Ural and the Kurgan 
region the imagines are observable rarely and not every year.
HABITAT: meadows, fields, steppefied areas, settlements.

FLIGHT PERIOD: late May/September, in two broods.

PREIMAGINAL PHASES: studied in Europe. Foodplants: Onobrychis, 
Astragalus, Medicago, Cytisus, Coronilla, Chamaecytisus, Lotus, Trifolium,  
Vicia, and other Fabaceae. Eggs: spindle-shaped with 24-26 ribs,  
yellowish, laid singly on the foodplant. Larva: green, set 
with small warts and short hairs, on either side with a yellow  
spiracular  stripe  containing lengthwise red dashes. Pupa: 
green with a yellow streak on either side of abdomen, shorter 
than in C. hyale. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 24-27 mm. In males and females 
wing upperside is yellowish-orange. White females (f. helice 
Hubner, 1803) and yellow males (f. erateformis Nickerl) are 
known. Outer border in male about 5 mm in width, with veins 
suffused with yellow scales, in females it usually contains 3-4 
yellow spots. The males have a light-orange androconial area at 
the hind wing base upperside. Similar species: C. myrmidone.

110. Colias fieldi Menetries, 1855.

TYPE LOCALITY: the Himalaya.

RANGE: Central Asia, NE China. In South Primorye the only male 
was collected by A.V.Tsvetaev on 6th of September 1966 in the 
Kedrovaya Pad' Nature Reservation. 

PECULIAR TRAITS OF IMAGO: F.w.l.: 27-30 mm. The wing upperside 
is bright yellowish-orange; the border is clear-cut in males, 
about 5 mm wide, and diffuse in females, much widened at the 
fore wing apex, on the hind wing it is stretched along the 
costa; the medial spot on the fore wing upperside is large, 
almost round but slightly stretched to the fore margin, the 
corresponding spot on the underside containing a nacreous 
stroke; the hind wing upperside has a light-orange quadrangular 
spot in the centre, clear-cut in males and obscure in females; 
the hind wing underside is greenish-yellow with an oval nacreous 
medial spot. 

GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION: The Far East is inhabited by ssp. 
chinensis Verity, 1909. 

ETYMOLOGY: Genrikh Andreevich Field (1822-1875), a member of the 
Russian Entomological Society, a co-author of N.G. Ershov of the 
catalogue of Lepidoptera of the Russian Empire (1870).

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