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The Glossary of Special Terms
Aedeagus: a sperm-conducting tube in the male genitalia.
Allotype: the specimen of the sex opposite to the holotype
chosen from the paratypes.
Anal margin of the wing: the hind (in a butterfly with the
wings spread) margin of the fore wing and the inner margin,
adjacent to the abdomen, of the hind wing, from the wing base to
the anal angle.
Androconia: the specialized smelling scales on the wings of
males, either dispersed, and so inconspicouos, or grouped into
the so-called sex-brands, their shape is often of a taxonomic
value (see Fig....).
Antennal club: a conspicuous swelling at the tip of the an
tenna in butterflies.
Apex of the wing: the bend, sometimes pointed, of the wing
margin between its fore and outer sections.
auct.: auctorum: a term designating that a given name was
applied for the taxon considered by some authors, that is
considered as erroneous in a given tet.
Author of the name of a genus, species, subspecies, etc.:
except for the special cases, the person who has first
published the description of the taxon.
Band: an element of wing pattern - a contiguous stripe or a
row of adjacent spots going across the wing.
Basal area of the wing: an area occupying about 1/8 of the total
wing area at the root.
Border: an element of the wing pattern adjacent to a margin.
Brackets (): used in systematics mostly for enclosing the author
and date of description of a species or subspecies name if it was
described in a combination with a different generic name than in a
given work, and also for enclosing the name of superspecies or
subgenus added between the names of the genus and species..
Brood or generation: the life circle of a butterfly
consisting of four stages: ovum (an egg), larva (a caterpillar),
pupa (a chrysalis), and imago (an adult insect).
Cell (on the wing): a cenrtral part of the butterfly wing
embraced between two main veins (the subcostal and the medial) and
as a rule closed proximally by a short transversal vein.
Codex: an abbreviated reference to the International Codex of
Zoological Nomenclature, which contains the modern rules of
Discoidal area: an area of the wing between the basal area
and the postdiscoidal area, the conventional boundary of the
discoidal and postdiscoidal area goes through the discoidal
Discoidal spot: an element of the wing pattern, a spot, usually
rounded, at the transversal vein.
Dorsal side: the upper side when the axis of the body or an
organ is horizontal.
Egg (ovum): the first stage in the butterfly life cycle; a
female lays dozens or hundreds of eggs, singly or in butches
(clusters), usually on the larval foodplant, or they are scattered
by a flying fgemale over the substrate.
Endemic: in our case - a butterfy species confined to a
Family (Lat. Familia): a taxonomic rank superior to the
genus, a family includes related genera (sometimes - a single
Fauna: a set of animals of a given group (e.g. butterflies)
inhabited a certain territory.
Form: the lowest taxonomic rank used to be used for designation
of any individual differing from the type in any characters, i.e.
for manifestation of individual - seasonal, ecological or genetic
Genitalia: the outer sexual organs of the adult insect: a
complex chitinous structure at the end of the body being of a
great diagnostic importance in systematics (see Fig...). While
examining a dry specimen one has to prepare its genitalia by
boiling them in 2-5% alkali solution in order to dissolve the
Genus (pl. genera): a taxonomic rank superior to the species, a
genus includes related species (sometimes - a single species).
Flight, flight time: the time of leaving of the imagines of a
Foodplant(s): the plant species, one, few, or many (often
belonging to the same family) on which the larvae of a butterfly
Fore (costal) margin of the wing: the section of the wing
margin going from the wing base to the apex (See Fig... ).
Fore wing length: the distance between the base and the apex
of the fore wing.
Fringe: modified scales situated at the outer margfin of the
wings (see Fig....)
Harpe: a projection sprouting from the inner surface of the
valva in the male genitalia (see fig....).
Holarctic - a zoogeographical region occupying the non-
tropical part of North Hemisphere and subdivided into Palearctic
Holotype: the only specimen on which a new species or
subspecies is based in the first description, it is a standard
of this taxon and so should be preserved in a museum collection
where it is available for investigation.
Imago: an adult, the resulting stage of the life cycle of an
insect which possesses wings and is capable of reproduction.
Instar: the time period between two subsequent moults of a
larva, which in butterflies usually have five instars.
Larva or caterpillar (See fig...): the second (after the egg)
and the most prolonged stage of a life circle when the insect
grows and accumulates internal resources of nutrients.
Lepidopterology: the science concerning butterflies and
moths, united into the order Lepidoptera.
Localness of distribution: disposition of a species within
its range in local populations distant from each other.
Migrations: flight of the butterfly imagines to far
distances, among butterflies certain Pieridae and large
Nymphalidae are typical migrants.
Nearctic: a zoogeographical region including the non-tropical
Nominotypical subspecies: the subspecies to which the
holotype of the species belongs, its name coincides with the
name of the species, e.g. Papilio machaon machaon.
Ocellus: an element of the wing pattern being a round spot
often centered with a pupil of a different colour.
Omonyms: each of two or more available names of different
species or subspecies within the same genus which has the same
spelling, only the oldest of which should be used as a valid
Original description (first description): a published verbal
description of the type specimens of a new taxon which is made
the first time and in agreement with the Codex.
Osmeterium: a fleshy suction fork on the first thoracic
segment in the larvae of the family Papilionidae producing a
smelling secretion for protection from predators.
Outer margin of wings: the section of the wing margin which
is most distant from the body and goes from the wing apex to the
anal angle (See Fig...)
Palearctic: a zoogeographical region including the non-
tropical Euroasia and North Africa.
Palpi (pl.): three-segmented appendages of the mouth arising at
the sides of the proboscis base.
Paratypes: all specimens, except for the holotype, designated
in the original descriptions as belonging to the new taxon
Parthenogenesis: sexual reproduction of females witthout
participation of males, parthenogenetic races arise from time to
time in some species with a common mode of reproduction; in
butterflies the phenomenom is not unambiguously reported yet.
Postdiscoidal area of the wing: an area between the discoidal
and submarginal areas (see Fig...).
Preimaginal stages: the stages off the life cycle which
precede the imago, i.e. the egg, the larva, and the pupa.
Proboscis: a tube-like part of the mouth apparatus of an adult
butterfly, coiled when not used.
Pupa: an immovable stage of the butterfly life cycle
intermediate between the larva and the imago. In butterflies the
pupa can be "hanging", i.e. attached upside down with the
cremaster (the hooks at the apex of the abdomen), "girdled",
i.e. attached with the cremaster and a belt of silken threads
going across the middle of the body, placed in a loose cocoon on
a plant or the ground, or lying freely on the ground.
Pupation: the process of transforming the larva into the
pupa, including a moult.
Seasonal dimorphism: the difference of the characters of
imagines of different broods of the same species resulting from
the influence of climatic factors on the preimaginal stages; in
butterflies the broods can differ either in colouration (e.g. in
the genus Araschnia) or in size (e.g. in Papilio xuthus).
Scales: tiny chitinous plates covering the wings and body of a
butterfly or moth in a tile manner.
Segments: repeated sections, similar in structure, of the
Sexual dimorphism: the difference between males and females
of the same species; in butterflies the males are usually
smaller and have a more vivid colouration.
Species (pl. species): the basic taxonomic rank in the
zoological systematics: a set of individuals potentially capable of
mutual mating and producing a fertile progeny, inhabiting a
definite territory and possessing a number of common morphological
characters and ecological features.
Species group: a complex of closely related and similar
species, its name can be added in brackets between the names of
the genus and species in a binomen.
Sphragis: a hard chitinous appendage at the underside of the
abdomen tip of females of the butterflies of the tribe Parnassiini
formed (secreted) by a male juct after mating.
Spiracles: outer respiratory openings, one of which situated
on either side of each segment (see Fig....).
Square brackets : used in systematics mostly for enclosing
the author and date of description of a taxon if they were not
specified at the original description and are inferred by
Subfamily (Lat. Subfamilia): a taxonomic rank superior to the
genus and inferior to the family.
Submarginal area: an area at the outer margin of the wing (See
Suborder (Lat. Subordo): a taxonomic rank superior to the
superfamily and inferior to the order.
Subspecies: a taxonomic rank below species, a geographically
defined set of populations in which the majority of individuals
(not less than 75%) differ in some characters from individuals
of the same species from other places.
Subunci (pl.): paired processes of the tegmen in the male
genitalia situated under the uncus from a side view (see Fig...).
Superspecies: see species group.
Superfamily (Lat. Superfamilia): a taxonomic rank superior to the
family and inferior to the suborder.
Synonyms: each of two or more names of the same taxonomical
rank proposed for designating the same taxon, the oldest of the
synonyms stated in agreement with the Codex should be used (is a
Systematics: a scientific discipline concerning description
of living organisms and investigation of their relatedness.
Tail: a processus at the anal angle of the hind wing in certain
Taxon: a systematic unit of any rank, a group of organisms
united by a given degree of closeness or relatedness.
Tegumen: a widened, usually dome-shaped, part of the male
genitalia situated dorsally (see Fig..).
Transversal vein (discoidal vein): a short vein (sometimes
considered as several joint veins) between the subcostal and
median veins, closing the cell; it is directed transversally to
Tribe (Lat. Tribus): a taxonomic rank superior to the genus and
inferior tothe subfamily.
Type locality (of a taxon): a geographic point of collecting the
holotype (the lectotype, the syntype) of a taxon.
Type species: the species on which a newly described genus is
based, it servs as an objectiove standard of the genus.
Uncus: a suction axial processus of the tegumen in the male
genitalia (see Fig....)
Valva (the cluspers): relatively large paired organs in the
male genitalia, their shape is often of a key importens for
systematics (see Fig...).
Variation: a property of living organisms to differ from each
other due to the influence of the environment or inherited
factors. The varieties of the geographical variations inhabiting
different parts of the range can be described as subspecies.
Veins: rigid tubes gonig through the wings, supporting their
membranous par,t and functionning as blood-vessels.
Ventral side: the lower side when the axis of the body
or an organ is horizontal.
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